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Stanford University Research Study
Through our partnership with Stanford University, Mynd Immersive is helping pave the way toward the global adoption of VR-based digital therapeutics.
Stanford University Research Study in collaboration with MyndVR Virtual Reality and the Aging Population
The Virtual Human Interaction Lab (VHIL) at Stanford University is collaborating with Mynd Immersive to study the impact of Virtual Reality on older adults residing in a variety of healthcare environments. Researchers at VHIL have been building immersive VR content and testing its effects on people for nearly two decades. Members of the lab have published hundreds of scientific articles detailing the psychological and behavioral impacts of VR experiences, and the Lab’s founding director, Dr. Jeremy Bailenson, is recognized as one of the world’s leading experts on the topic.
The study involves patients/residents and their caregivers filling out a brief questionnaire after participating in the Mynd Immersive experience. This survey will contain questions assessing psychological well-being, attitudes toward VR and other technologies, and feelings about the patient/caregiver relationship. Participants in this research will be helping us conduct one of the largest-scale studies to date of how VR affects this vitally important population.
Interested in becoming a Mynd Immersive Research Partner?
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The Effects of Virtual Reality on Dementia and the Aging Mind
Bilodeau M, Finestone H, McEwen D, et al. Two-week virtual reality training for dementia: Single-case feasibility study. JRRD. 2014;51(7):1069-1076 Blackman T, Calderon C, Flynn D, et al. Developing a Virtual Reality–Based Methodology for People with Dementia: A Feasibility Study. CyberPsychology and Behavior. 2003;6(6):591-611 Garcia L, Kartolo A, Methot-Curtis E. A Discussion of the Use of Virtual Reality in Dementia. In: Virtual Reality in Psychological, Medical and Pedagogical Applications. ; 2012. doi:10.5772/46412 García-Betances, R., Jiménez-Mixco, V., Arredondo, M. T., and Cabrera- Umpiérrez, M. F. (2014). Using virtual reality for cognitive training of the elderly. Am. J. Alzheimers Dis. Other Demen. 30, 49–54. doi:10.1177/ 1533317514545866 García-Betances RI, Arredondo Waldmeyer MT, Fico G and Cabrera-Umpiérrez MF. A succinct overview of virtual reality technology use in Alzheimer’s disease. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2015;80(7):1-8 Manera V, Chapoulie E, Bourgeois J, Guerchouche R. A Feasibility Study with Image-Based Rendered Virtual Reality in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia. PloS ONE. 2016;(Mci):1-15. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151487 McDuff, D., Gontarek, S., and Picard, R. (2014). “Remote measurement of cognitive stress via heart rate variability,” in 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 26–30 Aug. 2014(Chicago, IL: IEEE), 2957–2960. doi:10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944243 Siriaraya P, Ang CS, Bobrowicz A. Exploring the potential of virtual worlds in engaging older people and supporting healthy aging. Behaviour & Information Technology. 2012;33(3):283-294. doi:10.1080/0144929x.2012.691552. Quintana, E., and Favela, J. (2013). Augmented reality annotations to assist persons with Alzheimer’s and their caregivers. Pers. Ubiquitous Comput. 17, 1105–1116. doi:10.1007/s00779- 012- 0558- 6
The Use of Virtual Reality in Medicine/Rehabilitation
Baus, O., and Bouchard, S. (2014). Moving from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy: a review. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 8, 112. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00112 Botella, C. M., Juan, M. C., Baños, R. M., Alcañiz, M., Guillen, V., and Rey, B.(2005). Mixing realities? An application of augmented reality for the treatment of cockroach phobia. Cyberpsychol. Behav. 8, 162–171. doi:10.1089/cpb.2005.8.162 Dascal J, Reid M, Ishak WW, Spiegel B, Recacho J, Rosen B. Virtual Reality and Medical Inpatients : A Systematic Review of Randomized , Controlled Trials. 2017;14(1):14-21. García-Betances, R., Fico, G., Salvi, D., OTTaviano, M., and Arredondo, M. T. (2015). On the convergence of affective and persuasive technologies in computer-mediated health-care systems. Human Technol. (in press). Giglioli, I. A. C., Pallavicini, F., Pedroli, E., Serino, S., and Giuseppe Riva, G. (2015). Augmented reality: a brand new challenge for the assessment and treatment of psychological disorders, review article. Comput. Math. Methods Med. Article ID: 862942
Therapeutic Effects of Alternative Modalities
Cotelli, M., Manenti, R., Zanetti, O., and Miniussi, C. (2012). Non-pharmacological intervention for memory decline. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6, 46. doi:10.3389/ fnhum.2012.00046 Gerdner, L.A. (2000). Effects of individualized versus classical ‘relaxation’ music on the frequency of agitation in elderly persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. International Psychogeriatrics, 12(1), 49–65. Gerdner, L.A., & Schoenfelder, D.P. (2010). Evidence-based guideline. Individualized music for elders with dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 36(6), 7-15. doi: 10.3928/00989134-20100504-01. Kish, S. W. (2018, April 27). Music Activates Regions of the Brain Spared by Alzheimer's Disease. Retrieved July 14, 2018 Sung, H.C., Chang, A.M., & Lee, W.L. (2010). A preferred music listening intervention to reduce anxiety in older adults with dementia in nursing homes. Journal of Clinical Nursing 19(7-8), 1056–1064. doi: 10.1002/gps.2761
General References on Virtual Reality, Dementia, and the Aging Mind
Alzheimer’s Association, 2018 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures. (2018) Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 7(2). Available at: https://www.alz.org/media/HomeOffice/Facts%20and%20Figures/facts-and-figures.pdf. Accessed October 2018 American Psychiatric Association. (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Chemerinski, E., Petracca, G., Manes, F., Leiguarda, R., & Starkstein, S.E. (1998). Prevalence and correlates of anxiety in Alzheimer’s disease. Depression and Anxiety, 7(4), 166−170 Finkel, S.I. (2001). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a current focus of clinicians, researchers, and caregivers. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(Suppl 21), 3-6 Hoe, J., Hancock, G., Livingston, G., & Orrell, M. (2006). Quality of life of people with dementia in residential care homes. British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 460−464. Starr, J.M., & Lonie, J. (2007). Relationship between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and cognition in Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 24(5), 343–347. Witmer BG & Singer MJ (1998) Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire. Presence. 7(3): 225–240.